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Brown University

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Brown University
BrownU-CoA.svg
Latin: Universitas Brunensis
Motto In Deo Speramus (Latin)
Motto in English
In God We Hope[1]
Type Private
Established 1764
Endowment $3.07 billion (June 30, 2015)[2]
Chancellor Thomas J. Tisch
President Christina Hull Paxson
Provost Richard M. Locke[3]
Academic staff
736 full-time
217 Humanities
163 Life/Medical Sciences
197 Physical Sciences
159 Social Sciences[4]
Students 8,619[5]
Undergraduates 6,182
Postgraduates 1,974
Other students
463 (medical)
Location Providence, RI, US
41°49'34?N 71°24'12?W? / ?41.8262°N 71.4032°W? / 41.8262; -71.4032Coordinates: 41°49'34?N 71°24'12?W? / ?41.8262°N 71.4032°W? / 41.8262; -71.4032
Campus Urban
143 acres (579,000 m²)
Newspaper The Brown Daily Herald
Colors Brown, Red, White[6][7][8]
              
Athletics NCAA Division IIvy League
ECAC Hockey, EARC/EAWRC
Nickname Bears
Mascot Bruno the Bear
Affiliations
Website brown.edu
Brown University Logo.svg

Brown University is a private, Ivy League, research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as "The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," Brown is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution.[9]

At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the United States to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation.[10] Its engineering program, established in 1847, was the first in what is now known as the Ivy League. Brown's New Curriculum—sometimes referred to in education theory as the Brown Curriculum—was adopted by faculty vote in 1969 after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus," and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit.[11] In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was fully merged into the university.

Undergraduate admissions is among the most selective in the country, with an acceptance rate of 9.5[12] percent for the class of 2019, according to the university.[13] The University comprises The College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the School of Professional Studies (which includes the IE Brown Executive MBA program). Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International Studies, and is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design. The Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions.

Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, the third largest city in New England. The University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial era buildings. On the western edge of the campus, Benefit Street contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".[14]

Brown has produced 7 Nobel Prize winners, 57 Rhodes Scholars,[15] five National Humanities Medalists,[16] eight billionaire graduates,[17] and 10 National Medal of Science laureates, and has also produced Fulbright, Marshall, and Mitchell scholars.[18]

History

The foundation and the charter

The Ezra Stiles copy of the Brown University Charter of 1764

The origins of Brown University may be dated to 1761 when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island, drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony:[19]

"Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Mathematics, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired. That for this End ... it will be necessary ... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors."

The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale; William Ellery, Jr., future signer of the United States Declaration of Independence; and Josias Lyndon, future governor of the colony. Stiles and Ellery would two years later be co-authors of the Charter of the College. The editor of Stiles's papers observes that, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."[20]

In 1762 there is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles:[21]

"The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter. ... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; I heartily wish you Success therein."

The Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches also had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination, the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams. The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges—the Congregationalists had Harvard and Yale, the Presbyterians had the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), and the Episcopalians had the College of William and Mary and King's College (later Columbia). Writing in 1784, Isaac Backus, historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia:[22]

"The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists; ... Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work."

Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would underrepresent the Baptists. A revised Charter, written by Stiles and Ellery, was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.

In September 1764 the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Governor Stephen Hopkins was chosen chancellor, former and future governor Samuel Ward was vice chancellor, John Tillinghast treasurer, and Thomas Eyres secretary. The Charter stipulated that the Board of Trustees comprise 22 Baptists, five Quakers, five Episcopalians, and four Congregationalists. Of the 12 Fellows, eight should be Baptists—including the College president—"and the rest indifferently of any or all Denominations."[23]

The Charter was not, as is sometimes supposed, the grant of King George III, but rather an Act of the colonial General Assembly. In two particulars the Charter may be said to be a uniquely progressive document. First, where other colleges had curricular strictures against opposing doctrines, Brown's Charter asserted that "Sectarian differences of opinions, shall not make any Part of the Public and Classical Instruction." Second, according to University historian Walter Bronson, "the instrument governing Brown University recognized more broadly and fundamentally than any other the principle of denominational cooperation."[24] The oft-repeated statement that Brown's Charter alone prohibited a religious test for College membership is inaccurate; other college charters were also liberal in that particular.

James Manning was sworn in as the College's first president in 1765 and served until 1791. In 1770 the College moved from Warren, Rhode Island, to the crest of College Hill overlooking Providence. Solomon Drowne, a freshman in the class of 1773, wrote in his diary on March 26, 1770:[25]

"This day the Committee for settling the spot for the College, met at the New-Brick School House, when it was determined it should be set on ye Hill opposite Mr. John Jenkes; up the Presbyterian Lane."

Presbyterian Lane is the present College Street. The eight-acre site, in two parcels, had been purchased by the Corporation for £219, mainly from Moses Brown and John Brown, the parcels having "formed a part of the original home lots of their ancestor, Chad Brown, and of George Rickard, who bought them from the Indians." University Hall—known until 1823 as "The College Edifice"—was modelled on Nassau Hall at the College of New Jersey. Its construction was managed by the firm of Nicholas Brown and Company, which spent £2844 in the first year building the College Edifice and the adjacent President's House.[26][27]

Nicholas Brown, Junior, founder of the Providence Athenaeum, co-founder of Butler Hospital, philanthropist, progressive, and abolitionist. Following his major gift in 1804, the College was renamed Brown University. Painting by Chester Harding, 1836

The Brown family

The Brown family—Nicholas Brown, his son Nicholas Brown, Jr., class of 1786, John Brown, Joseph Brown, and Moses Brown—were instrumental in moving the College to Providence and securing its endowment. Joseph became a professor of natural philosophy at the College, John served as its treasurer from 1775 to 1796, and Nicholas, Junior, succeeded his uncle as treasurer from 1796 to 1825.

On September 8, 1803, the Corporation voted, "That the donation of $5000 Dollars, if made to this College within one Year from the late Commencement, shall entitle the donor to name the College." In a letter dated September 6, 1804, that appeal was answered by College treasurer Nicholas Brown, Junior, and the Corporation honored its promise: "In gratitude to Mr. Brown, the Corporation at the same meeting voted, 'That this College be called and known in all future time by the Name of Brown University'."[24] Over the years, the benefactions of Nicholas Brown, Jr, would total nearly $160,000, an enormous sum for that period, and included the buildings Hope College and Manning Hall, built 1821-22 and 1834-35.

It is sometimes erroneously supposed that Brown University was "named after" John Brown, whose commercial activity included the transportation of African slaves. In fact, Brown University was named for Nicholas Brown, Jr—philanthropist, founder of the Providence Athenaeum, co-founder of Butler Hospital, and, crucially, an abolitionist. Under the guidance of his uncle Moses Brown, one of the leading abolitionists of his day, Nicholas Brown, Junior, became a financier of the movement.[28] (The opposing attitudes to the slave trade within the Brown family—from John Brown's unapologetic participation, to Moses and Nicholas Brown's activist opposition—are described in Ricardo Howell, "Slavery, the Brown Family of Providence and Brown University" (2001, published online at Brown.edu), and in Charles Rappleye, Sons of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution (New York, 2006)).

Brigadier general James Mitchell Varnum, class of 1769, served in the Continental Army and advocated the enlistment of African Americans, which resulted in the reformation of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment as an all-black unit. Painting by Charles Willson Peale, 1804

The American Revolution

In the fall of 1776, with British vessels patrolling Narragansett Bay, the College library was moved out of Providence for safekeeping. On December 7, 1776, six thousand British and Hessian troops under the command of Sir Peter Parker sailed into Newport harbor. In a letter written after the war, College president Manning said:[29]

"The royal Army landed on Rhode Island & took possession of the same: This brought their Camp in plain View from the College with the naked Eye; upon which the Country flew to Arms & marched for Providence, there, unprovided with Barracks they marched into the College & dispossessed the Students, about 40 in Number."

"In the claim for damages presented by the Corporation to the United States government," says the University historian, "it is stated that the American troops used it for barracks and hospital from December 10, 1776, to April 20, 1780, and that the French troops used it for a hospital from June 26, 1780, to May 27, 1782."[30] The French troops were those of the Comte de Rochambeau.

On the College Green, Sayles Hall (left), built 1878-81, designed by Alpheus C. Morse, and Wilson Hall, built 1891, designed by Gould & Angell, both buildings in the Richardsonian Romanesque style

The New Curriculum

In 1850, Brown President Francis Wayland wrote: "The various courses should be so arranged that, insofar as practicable, every student might study what he chose, all that he chose, and nothing but what he chose."[31] Adopted in 1969, the New Curriculum is a milestone in the University's history and is seen as the realization of Wayland's vision.

The curriculum was the result of a paper written by Ira Magaziner and Elliot Maxwell titled "Draft of a Working Paper for Education at Brown University."[32] The paper came out of a year-long Group Independent Study Project (GISP) involving 80 students and 15 professors. The GISP was inspired by student-initiated experimental schools, especially San Francisco State College, and sought ways to "put students at the center of their education" and "teach students how to think rather than just teaching facts."[33]

The paper made concrete proposals for the new curriculum, including interdisciplinary freshman-year courses that would introduce "modes of thought," with instruction from faculty brought together from different disciplines. The aim was to transform the traditional survey course—often experienced passively by first-year students—into a more engaging process, an investigation of the intellectual and philosophical connections between disciplines. A grading option of Satisfactory/No Credit would be introduced to encourage students to try courses outside their grade-point comfort zone. In practice, this grading innovation of the New Curriculum—sometimes misunderstood and mischaracterized—has been its most successful component, responsible, in the decades since its adoption, for uncounted career-changing decisions—studio art swapped for neuroscience, biology swapped for anthropology, mathematics swapped for playwriting (and Pulitzer Prizes).[34]

On the Front Green at the top of College Hill are Hope College (left), built 1821-22, and Manning Hall, built 1834-35, designed by Russell Warren. Both buildings were the gift of Nicholas Brown, Junior

In the spring of 1969, following student rallies in support of reform, University president Ray Heffner appointed the Special Committee on Curricular Philosophy, tasked with developing specific reforms. The resulting report, called the Maeder Report after its committee chair, was presented to the faculty, which voted the New Curriculum into existence on May 7, 1969. Its key features included:[33]

  • Modes of Thought courses for first-year students
  • The introduction of interdisciplinary courses
  • The abandonment of "general education" distribution requirements
  • The Satisfactory/No Credit grading option
  • The ABC/No Credit grading system, which eliminated pluses, minuses, and D's; a grade of "No Credit" would not appear on external transcripts.

The Modes of Thought course, a key component in the original conception of the New Curriculum, was early on discontinued, but all of the other elements are still in place. In 2006 the reintroduction of plus/minus grading was broached by persons concerned about grade inflation. After a canvassing of alumni, faculty, and students, including the original authors of the Magaziner-Maxwell Report, the idea was rejected by the College Curriculum Council.[35]

Coat of arms

Brown University's coat of arms is a white field divided into four sectors by a red cross: within each sector is an open book. Above the shield is a crest consisting of the upper half of a sun in splendor among the clouds atop a red and white torse. The sun and clouds represent "learning piercing the clouds of ignorance." The cross is believed to be a Saint George's Cross, and the open books represent learning.[36]

Campus

Robinson Hall, built 1875-78, designed by Walker and Gould, an octagonal building in the Venetian Gothic style. It is an example of the panoptic principle in library design inspired by the British Museum reading room[37]

Brown is the largest institutional landowner in Providence, with properties on College Hill and in the Jewelry District.[38] The College Hill campus was built contemporarily with the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century precincts that surround it, so that University buildings blend with the architectural fabric of the city. The only indicator of "campus" is a brick and wrought-iron fence on Prospect, George, and Waterman streets, enclosing the College Green and Front Green. The character of Brown's urban campus is, then, European organic rather than American landscaped.

Main campus

The main campus, comprising 235 buildings and 143 acres (0.58 km2), is on College Hill in Providence's East Side. It is reached from downtown principally by three extremely steep streets—College, Waterman, and Angell—which run through the Benefit Street historic district and the campus of the Rhode Island School of Design. College Street, culminating with Van Wickle Gates at the top of the hill, is especially beautiful, and is the setting for the Convocation and Commencement processions.

At Convocation, new students march through Van Wickle Gates, built 1900-01, designed by Hoppin and Ely of Providence and Hoppin and Koen of New York.[39] The gates were the gift of Augustus Stout Van Wickle, class of 1876, who also gave the FitzRandolph Gateway at Princeton, built 1905, as a memorial to his ancestor Nathaniel FitzRandolph

Van Wickle Gates

Main article: Van Wickle Gates

The Van Wickle Gates, dedicated on June 18, 1901, have a pair of smaller side gates that are open year round, and a large central gate that is opened two days a year for Convocation and Commencement. At Convocation the gate opens inward to admit the procession of new students. At Commencement the gate opens outward for the procession of graduates.[40] A Brown superstition is that students who walk through the central gate a second time prematurely will not graduate, although walking backwards is said to cancel the hex. Members of the Brown University Band famously flout the superstition by walking through the gate three times too many, as they annually play their role in the Commencement parade.

Carrie Tower, built 1904 in English Baroque style, is a memorial to Caroline Mathilde Brown, granddaughter of Nicholas Brown, class of 1786, for whom the University is named

The core green spaces of the main campus are the Front (or "Quiet") Green, the College (or "Main") Green, and the Ruth J. Simmons Quadrangle (until 2012 called Lincoln Field). The old buildings on these three greens are the most photographed.

Adjacent to this older campus are, to the south, academic buildings and residential quadrangles, including Wriston, Keeney, and Gregorian quadrangles; to the east, Sciences Park occupying two city blocks; to the north, connected to Simmons Quadrangle by The Walk, academic and residential precincts, including the life sciences complex and the Pembroke Campus; and to the west, on the slope of College Hill, academic buildings, including List Art Center and the Hay and Rockefeller libraries. Also on the slope of College Hill, contiguous with Brown, is the campus of the Rhode Island School of Design.

The John Hay Library, built 1910, designed by Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge in the English Renaissance style, is home to rare books, special collections, and the University archives

John Hay Library

Main article: John Hay Library

The John Hay Library is the second oldest library on campus. It was opened in 1910 and named for John Hay (class of 1858, private secretary to Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State under two Presidents) at the request of his friend Andrew Carnegie, who contributed half of the $300,000 cost of the building.[41] It is now the repository of the University's archives, rare books and manuscripts, and special collections. Noteworthy among the latter are the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection[42] (described as "the foremost American collection of material devoted to the history and iconography of soldiers and soldiering"), the Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays (described as "the largest and most comprehensive collection of its kind in any research library"), the Lownes Collection of the History of Science (described as "one of the three most important private collections of books of science in America"), and (for popularity of requests) the papers of H.P. Lovecraft. The Hay Library is home to one of the broadest collections of incunabula (15th-century printed books) in the Americas, as well as such rarities as the manuscript of Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and a Shakespeare First Folio. There are also three books bound in human skin.[43]

The John Carter Brown Library on the College Green, built 1898-1904, designed by Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge in the Beaux-Arts style, is one of the world's leading repositories of ancient books and maps relating to the exploration and natural history of the Americas[44]

John Carter Brown Library

The John Carter Brown Library, founded in 1846, is administered separately from the University, but has been located on the Main Green of the campus since 1904. It is generally regarded as the world's leading collection of primary historical sources pertaining to the Americas before 1825. It houses a very large percentage of the titles published before that date about the discovery, settlement, history, and natural history of the New World. The "JCB", as it is known, published the 29-volume Bibliotheca Americana, a principal bibliography in the field. Typical of its noteworthy holdings is the best preserved of the eleven surviving copies of the Bay Psalm Book the earliest extant book printed in British North America and the most expensive printed book in the world.[45] There is also a very fine Shakespeare First Folio, added to the collection by John Carter Brown's widow (a Shakespeare enthusiast) on the grounds that it includes The Tempest, a play set in the New World. The JCB holdings comprise more than 50,000 early titles and about 16,000 modern books, as well as prints, manuscripts, maps, and other items in the library's specialty.

Manning Hall, built 1834-35 in Greek Revival style, home to the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology

Haffenreffer Museum

The exhibition galleries of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Brown's teaching museum, are located in Manning Hall on the campus's main green. Its one million artifacts, available for research and educational purposes, are located at its Collections Research Center in Bristol, RI. The museum's goal is to inspire creative and critical thinking about culture by fostering interdisciplinary understanding of the material world. It provides opportunities for faculty and students to work with collections and the public, teaching through objects and programs in classrooms and exhibitions. The museum sponsors lectures and events in all areas of anthropology, and also runs an extensive program of outreach to local schools.

Brown Commencements have been held since 1776 in the First Baptist Church in America, built 1774-75, designed by Joseph Brown. This "meeting house" was built to accommodate 1,400 people and for the dual purpose of "the publick worship of Almighty God and also for holding commencement in"[46]

The "Walk" connects Pembroke Campus to the main campus. It is a succession of green spaces extending from Ruth Simmons Quadrangle (Lincoln Field) in the south to the Pembroke College monument on Meeting Street in the north. It is bordered by departmental buildings and the Granoff Center for the Creative Arts. A focal point of The Walk will be the Maya Lin-designed water-circulating topographical sculpture of Narragansett Bay, to be installed in 2014 next to the Institute for the Study of Environment and Society.

Smith-Buonanno Hall on the Pembroke Campus
Miller Hall on the Pembroke Campus

Pembroke campus

The Women's College in Brown University, known as Pembroke College, was founded in October 1891. When it merged with Brown in 1971, the Pembroke Campus was absorbed into the Brown campus. The Pembroke campus is centered on a quadrangle that fronts on Meeting Street, where a garden and monument—with scale-model of the quadrangle in bronze—compose the formal entry to the campus. The Pembroke campus is among the most pleasing spaces at Brown, with noteworthy examples of Victorian and Georgian architecture. The west side of the quadrangle comprises Pembroke Hall (1897), Smith-Buonanno Hall (1907, formerly Pembroke Gymnasium), and Metcalf Hall (1919); the east side comprises Alumnae Hall (1927) and Miller Hall (1910); the quadrangle culminates on the north with Andrews Hall (1947) and its terrace and garden. Pembroke Hall, originally a classroom building and library, now houses the Cogut Center for the Humanities.

The Orwig Music Library in the former Isaac Gifford Ladd house, built 1850, acquired in 1969 when Brown bought the buildings and grounds of Bryant University on the southeast edge of the Brown campus

East Campus, centered on Hope and Charlesfield streets, was originally the site of Bryant University. In 1969, as Bryant was preparing to move to Smithfield, Rhode Island, Brown bought their Providence campus for $5 million. This expanded the Brown campus by 10 acres (40,000 m2) and 26 buildings, included several historic houses, notably the Isaac Gifford Ladd house, built 1850 (now Brown's Orwig Music Library), and the Robert Taft House, built 1895 (now King House). The area was named East Campus in 1971.

Thayer Street runs through Brown's main campus, north to south, and is College Hill's reduced-scale counterpart to Harvard Square or Berkeley's Telegraph Avenue. Restaurants, cafes, bistros, tavernas, pubs, bookstores, second-hand shops, and the like abound. Tourists, people-watchers, buskers, and students from Providence's six colleges make the scene. Half a mile south of campus is Thayer Street's hipper cousin, Wickenden Street. More picturesque and with older architecture, it features galleries, pubs, specialty shops, artist-supply stores, and a regionally famous coffee shop that doubles as a film set (for Woody Allen and others).

Brown Stadium, built in 1925 and home to the football team, is located approximately a mile to the northeast of the main campus. Marston Boathouse, the home of the crew teams, lies on the Blackstone/Seekonk River, to the southeast of campus. Brown's Warren Alpert Medical School is situated in the historic Jewelry District of Providence, near the medical campus of Brown's teaching hospitals, Rhode Island Hospital, Women and Infants Hospital, and Hasbro Children's Hospital. Other University research facilities in the Jewelry District include the Laboratories for Molecular Medicine.

Brown's School of Public Health occupies a landmark modernist building overlooking Memorial Park on the Providence Riverwalk. Brown also owns 376-acre (1.52 km2) the Mount Hope Grant in Bristol, Rhode Island, an important Native American and King Philip's War site. Brown's Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Collection Research Center, particularly strong in Native American items, is located in the Mount Hope Grant.

Academics

Presidents

19th Brown president Christina Hull Paxson, 2012 to present
2nd Brown president, Jonathan Maxcy, 1792–1802
4th Brown president Francis Wayland, 1827-1855. His influential book Thoughts on the Present Collegiate System in the United States (1842) urged American universities to adopt a broader curriculum
18th Brown president Ruth J. Simmons, 2001–2012, was the first African-American to lead an Ivy League university

Brown's current president Christina Hull Paxson took office in 2012. She had previously been dean of the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University and a past-chair of Princeton's economics department.[47] In 2014 and 2015, Paxson presided over the year-long celebration of the 250th anniversary of Brown's founding. Her immediate predecessor as president was Ruth J. Simmons, the first African American president of an Ivy League institution. Simmons will remain at Brown as a professor of Comparative Literature and Africana Studies.[48]

The College

Founded in 1764, the College is the oldest school of Brown University. About 6,400 undergraduate students are currently enrolled in the College, and 79 concentrations (majors) are offered. Completed concentrations of undergraduates by area are social sciences 42 percent, humanities 26 percent, life sciences 17 percent, and physical sciences 14 percent.[49] The concentrations with the greatest number of students are Biology, History, and International Relations. Brown is one of the few schools in the United States with an undergraduate concentration (major) in Egyptology. Undergraduates can also design an independent concentration if the existing programs do not align with their curricular focus.

35 percent of undergraduates pursue graduate or professional study immediately, 60 percent within 5 years, and 80 percent within 10 years.[50] For the Class of 1998, 75 percent of all graduates have since enrolled in a graduate or professional degree program.[51] The degrees acquired were doctoral 22 percent, master's 35 percent, medicine 28 percent, and law 14 percent.[51]

The highest fields of employment for graduates of the College are business 36 percent, education 19 percent, health/medical 6 percent, arts 6 percent, government 6 percent, and communications/media 5 percent.[51]

The language of the College Charter has